Sokendai Review of Cultural and Social Studies


Republicanism in the modern Japan
-Through Asajirou Oka in the 1920’s-

Masakazu Sanuki

(The Graduate University for Advanced Studies,
School of Cultural and Social Studies,Department of Japanese History)

Key words:

republicanism, the 1920’s, Asajirou Oka, rhetoric, the theory of evolution,‘ servile spirit’ ,the Japanese emperor system state, Sarunomurekara Kyouwakokumade,Fuguuno Tanosim,i‘ spontaneous democracy’

Could the base which supported republicanism and republicanism exist in the modern Japan? To research this problem, first, scholar must consider the characteristics of the word of the republicanism which the thinker announced to officially. Second, scholar must consider the thinker’s idea formation and the base which supported the republicanism in the bottom. Third, scholar must consider the social response to the republicanism. Fourth, scholar must consider characteristics of the Japanese emperor system state. This paper considers the first problem as a starting point of the research of the republicanism.

The purpose of this paper is to clear one republicanism in ‘the various republicanism’ of the modern Japan by considering the speech activities of Asajirou Oka (1868-1944) in the 1920’s.First, this paper considers Oka’s analysis of the emperor system state which used the rhetoric for Sinjin to Kyujin (The new person and the old person).Next, this paper considers each word concerned with Oka’s republicanism for Sarunomurekara Kyouwakokumade(from the group of monkeys to the republic).

The first chapter considers the characteristics of the emperor system state which analyzed it through the servile spirit with Oka using the rhetoric extensively. This paper clears the matter that Oka drew the emperor system state as a relational concept that the powerful person, monarch, people, family, army gives the interdependence by considering the following various problems. First, this paper considers that Oka made the struggle for existence change in the 1920’s and then he took the formation of the republic and the class struggle seriously. Second, this paper considers the reason why Oka used the rhetoric extensively, and the effect. Third, this paper considers that Oka analyzed the class mentality which supports the emperor system state by using the theory of servile spirit. Fourth, this paper considers Oka’s critical position for the servile spirit.

The second chapter clears each characteristic of Oka’s republicanism by considering Sarunomurekara Kyouwakokumade. First, this paper considers Oka’s rhetoric as a tactics which makes the general publication of the republicanism possible with preventing the suppression by the Japanese emperor system state. Second, this paper considers Oka’s biological historical view which made the theory of evolution the main axis. It considers human’s history which changes‘from the group of monkeys to republic’by tying the history (human’s history) to biology (natural history). Third, this paper considers that Oka analyzed‘the hereditary dictatorship kingdom’which suggested the emperor system state. Fourth, this paper considers Oka’s republicanism connected with Tenbujinkenron(the theory of the human rights which the sky endows it with)and the democratic constitution as a democratic theory. Fifth, this paper considers Oka’s idea to recognize as the a series of each process(the affirmation of reconstruction, the self-caution of ideal, the presentation of problem)at the same time. Sixth, this paper considers the view of life of Oka who despises the modern value thoroughly for Fuguuno Tanosimi(the pleasure of misfortune).

Seventh, compare Oka with Yoshino, and examine the characteristics of Oka’s republicanism.

At the end, this paper defines Oka’s republicanism, and examines the meaning of Oka’s republicanism and the subjects. Lastly, this paper places Oka’s republicanism in the Japanese democracy as ’ spontaneous democracy’ that deny the emperor sovereign power and aim at the people sovereign power.